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Combination treatment for visceral leishmaniasis patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus in India

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Background. There are considerable numbers of patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the VL-endemic areas of Bihar, India. These patients are at higher risk of relapse and death, but there are still no evidence-based guidelines on how to treat them. In this study, we report on treatment outcomes of coinfected patients up to 18 months following treatment with a combination regimen. Methods. This retrospective analysis included all patients with confirmed HIV-VL coinfection receiving combination treatment for VL at a Medecins Sans Frontieres treatment center between July 2012 and September 2014. Patients were treated with 30 mg/kg body weight intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) divided as 6 equal dose infusions combined with 14 days of 100 mg/day oral miltefosine (Impavido). All patients were encouraged to start or continue on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results. 102 patients (76% males, 57% with known HIV infection, 54% with a prior episode of VL) were followed-up for a median of 11 months (interquartile range: 4-18). Cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and VL relapse at 6, 12, and 18 months was 11.7%, 14.5%, 16.6% and 2.5%, 6.0%, 13.9%, respectively. Cumulative incidence of poor outcome at 6, 12, and 18 months was 13.9%, 18.4%, and 27.2%, respectively. Not initiating ART and concurrent tuberculosis were independent risk factors for mortality, whereas no factors were associated with relapse. Conclusions. In this Bihar-based study, combination therapy appeared to be well tolerated, safe, and effective and may be considered as an option for treatment of VL in HIV coinfected patients.
Journal: Clinical infectious diseases
ISSN: 1058-4838
Volume: 61
Pages: 1255 - 1262
Publication year:2015
Keywords:A1 Journal article
BOF-publication weight:10
CSS-citation score:2
Authors from:Higher Education