< Back to previous page


The effects of TIME-IN on emotion regulation, externalizing, and internalizing problems in promoting school readiness

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

ChildrenU+2019s readiness for school is often threatened by the occurrence of both externalizing and internalizing problems. Previous research has shown that Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is particularly effective for fostering childrenU+2019s behavioral skills and reducing externalizing problems. However, whether PBIS can enhance childrenU+2019s emotional skills and reduce internalizing problems is less clear. Therefore, TIME-IN was developed, which extends PBIS by also including emotional support systems. It was tested whether TIME-IN was effective for (a) improving emotion regulation and (b) reducing depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was tentatively explored whether TIME-IN is accompanied by more than natural fluctuations in both childrenU+2019s externalizing and internalizing problems. The effectiveness of TIME-IN was evaluated in a non-randomized study, in which an intervention group was compared with a matched control group. Both research questions were addressed in a sample consisting of 81 children between 8 and 12 years of age with special educational needs. Questionnaires for teachers (i.e., TRF), children (i.e., FEEL-KJ and CDI), and their parents (i.e., CBCL) were administered at the beginning (T0) and the end of the school year (T1) using multi-informant assessment. Only indicative evidence was found for the hypothesis that TIME-IN improved childrenU+2019s emotion regulation. Practical implications, strengths, and limitations were discussed.
Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Volume: 12
Number of pages: 1
Publication year:2021