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High-density mapping improves detection of conduction gaps after pulmonary vein isolation ablation with a circular mapping catheter

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

BACKGROUND: High-density (HD) mapping of the pulmonary vein (PVs) has been hypothesized to improve the detection of conduction gaps in the radiofrequency ablation lesions set after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to compare the incidence of gaps after PVI with a standard 20-pole circumferential mapping catheter (CMC-20) and an HD mapping catheter (HD Grid). METHODS: This prospective study included patients scheduled for high-power short-duration PVI. Acute PVI was defined as an entrance and exit block using the CMC-20 after ≥ 20 min waiting period. The left atrium was then remapped using the HD Grid high-density mapping catheter to identify residual conduction gaps in the PVI lines by voltage and activation criteria. The primary endpoint was the number of gaps identified per patient by the HD Grid catheter. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were included (mean age 59.9 ± 10.8 years, 15% female, 70% paroxysmal AF). The new map with the HD Grid identified 6 gaps in 4 patients (20%) or 0.3 ± 0.7 gaps per patient (p = 0.055 when compared to CMC-20). Five gaps (83%) were located at the right PVs. There was no difference in mapping time (CMC-20 12.2 ± 2.6 min vs HD Grid 11.7 ± 3.4 min, p = 0.452); however, the number of points was significantly higher in the HD Grid map (1662.7 ± 366.1 vs 1171.6 ± 313.6, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: HD mapping during AF ablation identified PVI gaps in 1 out of 5 patients. Therefore, HD mapping may have the potential to improve AF ablation success rates in the long term. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04850508 on April 20, 2021.
Journal: Cardiac Electrophysiology Review
ISSN: 1383-875X
Issue: 6
Volume: 66
Publication year:2023