Incidence and features of thrombosis in children with inherited antithrombin deficiency
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Pediatric thromboembolism (≤18 years) is very rare (0.07-0.14/10,000/year) but may be more prevalent in children with severe thrombophilia (protein C, protein S or antithrombin deficiency). The aim of this study was to define the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pediatric thrombosis in subjects with inherited antithrombin deficiency. Our observational retrospective multicentric study from two countries recruited 968 patients of any age from 441 unrelated families with genetically, biochemically and functionally characterized antithrombin deficiency. Seventy-three subjects (7.5%) developed thrombosis before 19 years of age. Two high-risk periods for thrombosis were identified: adolescence (12-18 years, n=49) with thrombus localization (lower limb deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) and triggering factors common to adults (oral contraceptives, surgery or pregnancy); and the neonatal period (<30 days, n=15) with idiopathic thrombosis at unusual sites. The clinical evaluation of pediatric thrombosis in subjects with antithrombin deficiency revealed: i) a high prevalence of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (n=13, 17.8%), mainly at young age (8 neonates and 4 children <6 years); ii) severe outcome with fatality in six cases (3 neonates, two of them homozygous for p.Leu131Phe). The majority of subjects (76.7%) carried quantitative type I deficiency. This retrospective analysis includes the largest cohort of subjects with inherited antithrombin deficiency so far and provides strong evidence for an increased risk of pediatric thrombosis associated with this thrombophilia (300-fold compared with the general population: 0.41%/year vs 0.0014%/year, respectively). Our results support testing for antithrombin deficiency in children of affected families, particularly in case of type I deficiency.