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MAMMALIAN TRANSIENT RECEPTOR POTENTIAL TRPA1 CHANNELS: FROM STRUCTURE TO DISEASE

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

The transient receptor potential ankyrin (TRPA) channels are Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels remarkably conserved through the animal kingdom. Mammals have only one member, TRPA1, which is widely expressed in sensory neurons and in non-neuronal cells (such as epithelial cells and hair cells). TRPA1 owes its name to the presence of 14 ankyrin repeats located in the NH2 terminus of the channel, an unusual structural feature that may be relevant to its interactions with intracellular components. TRPA1 is primarily involved in the detection of an extremely wide variety of exogenous stimuli that may produce cellular damage. This includes a plethora of electrophilic compounds that interact with nucleophilic amino acid residues in the channel and many other chemically unrelated compounds whose only common feature seems to be their ability to partition in the plasma membrane. TRPA1 has been reported to be activated by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli, and its function is modulated by multiple factors, including Ca2+, trace metals, pH, and reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species. TRPA1 is involved in acute and chronic pain as well as inflammation, plays key roles in the pathophysiology of nearly all organ systems, and is an attractive target for the treatment of related diseases. Here we review the current knowledge about the mammalian TRPA1 channel, linking its unique structure, widely tuned sensory properties, and complex regulation to its roles in multiple pathophysiological conditions.
Journal: Physiological Reviews
ISSN: 0031-9333
Issue: 2
Volume: 100
Pages: 725 - 803
Number of pages: 79
Publication year:2020
Keywords:Physiology