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Measures for concordance and discordance with applications in disease control and prevention
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Bivariate binary response data appear in many applications. Interest goes most often to a parameterization of the joint probabilities in terms of the marginal success probabilities in combination with a measure for association, most often being the odds ratio. Using, for example, the bivariate Dale model, these parameters can be modelled as function of covariates. But the odds ratio and other measures for association are not always measuring the (joint) characteristic of interest. Agreement, concordance, and synchrony are in general facets of the joint distribution distinct from association, and the odds ratio as in the bivariate Dale model can be replaced by such an alternative measure. Here, we focus on the so-called conditional synchrony measure. But, as indicated by several authors, such a switch of parameter might lead to a parameterization that does not always lead to a permissible joint bivariate distribution. In this contribution, we propose a new parameterization in which the marginal success probabilities are replaced by other conditional probabilities as well. The new parameters, one homogeneity parameter and two synchrony/discordance parameters, guarantee that the joint distribution is always permissible. Moreover, having a very natural interpretation, they are of interest on their own. The applicability and interpretation of the new parameterization is shown for three interesting settings: quantifying HIV serodiscordance among couples in Mozambique, concordance in the infection status of two related viruses, and the diagnostic performance of an index test in the field of major depression disorders.
Journal: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Pages: 3086 - 3099
Number of pages: 14
Keywords:Association, asynchrony, concordance, discordance, marginal homogeneity, maximum likelihood, McNemar’s test, synchrony