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Optical Control of Dopamine Receptors Using a Photoswitchable Tethered Inverse Agonist
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
Family A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) control diverse biological processes and are of great clinicalrelevance. Their archetype rhodopsin becomes naturally light sensitive by binding covalently to the photoswitchable tetheredligand (PTL) retinal. Other GPCRs, however, neither bind covalently to ligands nor are light sensitive. We sought toimpart the logic of rhodopsin to light-insensitive Family A GPCRs in order to enable their remote control in a receptorspecific,cell-type-specific and spatio-temporally precise manner. Dopamine receptors (DARs) are of particular interest fortheir roles in motor coordination, appetitive and aversive behavior, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’sdisease, schizophrenia, mood disorders and addiction. Using an azobenzene derivative of the well-known DAR ligandPPHT, we were able to rapidly, reversibly and selectively block dopamine D1 and D2 receptor (D1R and D2R) whenthe PTL was conjugated to an engineered cysteine near the dopamine binding site. Depending on the site of tethering, theligand behaved as either a photoswitchable tethered neutral antagonist (PTNA) or inverse agonist (PTIA). Our resultsindicate that DARs can be chemically engineered for selective remote control by light and provide a template for precision control of Family A GPCRs.
Journal: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pages: 18522 - 18535