Perceptual snoring as a basis for a psychoacoustical modeling and clinical patient profiling
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
PURPOSE: The perceptual burden and social nuisance for mainly the co-sleeper can affect the relationship between snorer and bedpartner. Mandibular advancement devices (MAD) are commonly recommended to treat sleep-related breathing such as snoring or sleep apnea. There is no consensus about the definition of snoring particularly with MAD, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of treatment. We aimed to stablish a notion of perceptual snoring with MAD in place.
METHODS: Sound samples, each 30 min long, were recorded during in-home, overnight, automatic mandibular repositioning titration studies in a population of 29 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) from a clinical trial carried out to validate the MATRx plus. Three unspecialized and calibrated raters identified sound events and classified them as noise, snore, or breathing as well as providing scores for classification certainty and annoyance. Data were analyzed with respect to expiration-inspiration, duration, annoyance, and classification certainty.
RESULTS: A Fleiss' kappa (>0.80) and correlation duration of events (>0.90) between raters were observed. Prevalence of all breath sounds: snore 55.6% (N = 6398), breathing sounds 31.7% (N = 3652), and noise 9.3% (N = 1072). Inspiration occurs in 88.3% of events, 96.8% contained at least on expiration phase. Snore and breath events had similar duration, respectively 2.58s (sd 1.43) and 2.41s (sd 1.22). Annoyance is lowest for breathing events (8.00 sd 0.98) and highest for snore events (4.90 sd 1.92) on a VAS from zero to ten.
CONCLUSION: Perceptual sound events can be a basis for analysis in a psychosocial context. Perceived snoring occurs during both expiration as well as inspiration. Substantial amount of snoring remains despite repositioning of the mandible aimed at the reduction of AHI-ODI.