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Predictors for improvement in patient-reported outcomes: post hoc analysis of a phase 3 randomized, open-label study of eculizumab and ravulizumab in complement inhibitor-naive patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by uncontrolled terminal complement activation leading to intravascular hemolysis (IVH), thrombosis, and impairments in quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical drivers of improvement in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with PNH receiving the complement component 5 (C5) inhibitors eculizumab and ravulizumab.This post hoc analysis assessed clinical outcomes and PROs from 246 complement inhibitor-naive patients with PNH enrolled in a phase 3 randomized non-inferiority study that compared the C5 inhibitors ravulizumab and eculizumab (study 301; NCT02946463). The variables of interest were lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, a surrogate measure of IVH, and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. PROs were collected using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) to assess fatigue and QoL, respectively.Improvements in absolute mean LDH levels were significantly associated with improvements in mean FACIT-F score (p = 0.0024) and EORTC QLQ-C30 global health (GH) score (p < 0.0001) from baseline to day 183. Improvements in scores were achieved despite a non-significant increase in Hb levels. To understand the interaction between LDH and Hb, a regression analysis was performed: LDH response with Hb improvements was a significant predictor of improvement in fatigue. The independent effect of improved Hb did not significantly affect FACIT-F or EORTC QLQ-C30 GH scores.These findings suggest that LDH levels are an important determinant of fatigue and QoL outcomes in patients with PNH. CTR: NCT02946463, October 27, 2016.
ISSN: 0939-5555
Issue: 1
Volume: 103
Pages: 5 - 15
Publication year:2024