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Radium-223 in patients with prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression and without clinical metastases following maximal local therapy: A pilot study.

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

BACKGROUND: Despite the curative intent of radical prostatectomy (RP) (+/- radiotherapy (RT)), 30% of the clinically localized prostate cancer (CaP) patients will develop rising PSA (prostate specific antigen). In absence of clinical recurrence, there is a lack of effective treatment strategies in order to control the disease at its earliest (micro)metastatic stage. The aim of this study was to assess safety, tolerability, and biochemical response of off-label Radium-223 (Xofigo) treatment in CaP patients with PSA relapse following maximal local therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, single arm, single center open-label, pilot study with Radium-223 in CaP patients with rising PSA (>0.2 ng/ml) following RP + adjuvant/salvage RT. Negative staging with 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and whole-body MRI was mandatory at time of inclusion. Patients were eligible if they exhibited adverse clinico-pathological features predictive of significant recurrence. Safety, tolerability, biochemical progression (defined as PSA increase >50% from PSA nadir) and clinical recurrence were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 23 patients were screened of whom 8 patients were included is the study. Radium-223 treatment was safe with no serious treatment related adverse events. One patient developed grade 3 lymphopenia. All patients rapidly developed PSA progression (median PSA progression-free survival: 5.5 months). Eventually all patients experienced clinical recurrence (median clinical recurrence-free survival 11.0 months) of whom only 2 patients developed skeletal recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Radium-223 in patients with PSA relapse following maximal local treatment without clinical metastases is safe. However, the clinical benefit of Ra-223 in this setting is doubtful as significant oncological benefit is lacking.
Journal: Urologic Oncology
ISSN: 1078-1439
Issue: 1
Volume: 40
Pages: 7.e9 - 7.e17