Rigid motion tracking using moments of inertia in TOF-PET brain studies
Journal Contribution - Journal Article
A data-driven method is proposed for rigid motion estimation directly from time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) emission data. Rigid motion parameters (translations and rotations) are estimated from the first and second moments of the emission data masked in a spherical volume. The accuracy of the method is analyzed on 3D analytical simulations of the PET-SORTEO brain phantom, and subsequently tested on18F-FDG as well as11C-PIB brain datasets acquired on a TOF-PET/CT scanner. The estimated inertia-based motion is later compared to rigid motion parameters obtained by directly registering the short frame backprojections. We find that the method provides sub mm/degree accuracies for the estimated rigid motion parameters for counts corresponding to typical 0.5 s, 1 s, and 2 s18F-FDG brain scans, with the current TOF resolutions clinically available. The method provides robust motion estimation for different types of patient motion, most notably for a continuous patient motion case where conventional frame-based approaches which rely on little to no intra-frame motion of short time intervals could fail. The method relies on the detection of stable eigenvectors for accurate motion estimation, and a monitoring of this condition can reveal time-frames where the motion estimation is less accurate, such as in dynamic PET studies.