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Shigella in Africa: new insights from the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the burden of Shigella spp from children aged 0-59 months with medically attended moderate-to-severe diarrhea and matched controls at sites in Mali, The Gambia, and Kenya participating in the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) study from 2015 to 2018.

METHODS: Shigella spp were identified using coprocultures and serotyping in addition to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Episode-specific attributable fractions (AFe) for Shigella were calculated using Shigella DNA quantity; cases with AFe ≥0.5 were considered to have shigellosis.

RESULTS: The prevalence of Shigella was determined to be 359 of 4840 (7.4%) cases and 83 of 6213 (1.3%) controls by culture, and 1641 of 4836 (33.9%) cases and 1084 of 4846 (22.4%) controls by qPCR (cycle threshold <35); shigellosis was higher in The Gambia (30.8%) than in Mali (9.3%) and Kenya (18.7%). Bloody diarrhea attributed to Shigella was more common in 24- to 59-month-old children (50.1%) than 0- to 11-month-old infants (39.5%). The Shigella flexneri serogroup predominated among cases (67.6% of isolates), followed by Shigella sonnei (18.2%), Shigella boydii (11.8%), and Shigella dysenteriae (2.3%). The most frequent S. flexneri serotypes were 2a (40.6%), 1b (18.8%), 6 (17.5%), 3a (9.0%), and 4a (5.1%). Drug-specific resistance among 353 (98.3%) Shigella cases with AMR data was as follows: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (94.9%), ampicillin (48.4%), nalidixic acid (1.7%), ceftriaxone (0.3%), azithromycin (0.3%), and ciprofloxacin (0.0%).

CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of shigellosis continues in sub-Saharan Africa. Strains are highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics while remaining susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin.

Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
ISSN: 1058-4838
Issue: Suppl.1
Volume: 76
Pages: S66-S76
Publication year:2023
Keywords:Child, Infant, Humans, Child, Preschool, Infant, Newborn, Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Shigella, Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use, Ciprofloxacin, Diarrhea/epidemiology, Mali/epidemiology, Microbial Sensitivity Tests