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Twenty-four-hour heart rate Is a trait but not state marker for depression in a pilot randomized controlled trial with a single infusion of ketamine
Journal Contribution - e-publication
Background: Abnormalities of heart rate (HR) and its variability are characteristic ofmajor depressive disorder (MDD). However, circadian rhythm is rarely taken into account when statistically exploring state or trait markers for depression. Methods: A 4-day electrocardiogram was recorded for 16 treatment-resistant patients with MDD and 16 age- and sex-matched controls before, and for the patient group only, after a single treatment with the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine or placebo (clinical trial registration available on https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ with EUDRACT number 2016-001715-21). Circadian rhythmdifferences of HR and the rootmean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were compared between groups and were explored for classification purposes. Baseline HR/RMSSD were tested as predictors for treatment response, and physiological measures were assessed as state markers. Results: Patients showed higher HR and lower RMSSD alongside marked reductions in HR amplitude and RMSSD variation throughout the day. Excellent classification accuracy was achieved using HR during the night, particularly between 2 and 3 a.m. (90.6%). A positive association between baseline HR and treatment response (r = 0.55, p = 0.046) pointed toward better treatment outcome in patients with higher HR. Heart rate also decreased significantly following treatment but was not associated with improved mood after a single infusion of ketamine. Limitations: Our study had a limited sample size, and patients were treated with concomitant antidepressant medication. Conclusion: Patients with depression show a markedly reduced amplitude for HR and dysregulated RMSSD fluctuation. Higher HR and lower RMSSD in depression remain intact throughout a 24-h day, with the highest classification accuracy during the night. Baseline HR levels show potential for treatment response prediction but did not show potential as state markers in this study.
Journal: Frontiers in psychiatry
Number of pages: 12
Keywords:A1 Journal article