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Unravelling ipsilateral interactions between left dorsal premotor and primary motor cortex: a proof of concept study

Journal Contribution - Journal Article

Few studies have identified the intrahemispheric functional connectivity between the ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the primary motor hand area (M1(hand)) due to technical limitations. In this proof-ofconcept study, a novel neuronavigated dsTMS set-up was employed, combining stimulation over left PMd and left M1(hand) using the edge of a butterfly coil and a small cooled-coil. This arrangement was warranted because coil (over)heating and inter coil distance are limiting factors when investigating connectivity between stimulation targets in close proximity and over a longer duration. The proposed set-up was designed to deal with these limitations. Specifically, the effect of four dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) protocols on twentyeight right-handed participants (12 males) was evaluated. These protocols differed in stimulus order, interstimulus interval and current direction induced in PMd. A structural scan with electric (E-)field modeling was obtained from seven participants prior to dsTMS, demonstrating that PMd and M1(hand) were effectively stimulated. Results indicate that one protocol, in which a latero-medial current was induced in PMd 2.8 ms prior to stimulation over M1(hand), induced a sex-mediated effect. In males, significant inhibition of motor-evoked potentials was identified, whereas females demonstrated a facilitatory effect that did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. E-field simulations revealed that the E-field induced by the coil targeting PMd was maximal in PMd, with weaker E-field strengths extending to regions beyond PMd. Summarizing, the current dsTMS set-up enabled stimulating at an inter-target distance of 35 mm without any indications of coil-overheating. (C) 2021 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Journal: Neuroscience
ISSN: 0306-4522
Volume: 466
Pages: 36 - 46
Publication year:2021
Keywords:transcranial magnetic stimulation