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When Bertlmann Wears No Socks. Common Causes Induced by Measurements as an Explanation for Quantum Correlations

Book Contribution - Chapter

It is well known that correlations produced by common causes in the past can- not violate Bell’s inequalities. This was emphasized by Bell in his celebrated example of Bertlmann’s socks. However, if common causes are induced by the very measurement process i.e., actualized at each run of a joint measurement, in a way that depends on the type of joint measurement that is being executed (hence, the common causes are contextually actualized), the resulting correla- tions are able to violate Bell’s inequalities, thus providing a simple and general explanation for the origin of quantum correlations. We illustrate this mecha- nism by revisiting Bertlmann’s socks example. In doing so, we also emphasize that Bell’s inequalities, in their essence, are about demarcating ‘non-induced by measurements’ (non-contextual) from ‘induced by measurements’ (contextual) common causes, where the latter would operate at a non-spatial level of our physical reality, when the jointly measured entangled entities are microscopic in nature.
Book: Probing the Meaning of Quantum Mechanics. Probability, Metaphysics, Explanation and Measurement.
Pages: 195-214
Number of pages: 20
Publication year:2023
  • ORCID: /0000-0003-2266-6658/work/142013224