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Bag-mask ventilation by low- or untrained rescuers during adult and pediatric resuscitation : a randomized cross-over manikin study

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Aim: Bag-mask ventilation (BMV) is often applied during advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Lay rescuers usually apply mouth-to-mouth ventilation, which is contraindicated in case of potential disease transmission (e.g., during the COVID-19 pandemic). This study evaluates the influence of rescuers' before BMV training in following the correct BMV procedures during adult and infant CPR. Methods: Medical students (n = 112) were enrolled in a randomized cross-over manikin study: 60 first-year students (53.6%) (untrained, without any prior knowledge of CPR) and 52 fourth-year students (46.4%) (BLS-trained, with three consecutive years of basic CPR training), excluding Basic Life Support (BLS) certificate holders or lifeguards. Student-formed duos (i.e., two students from the same year working together) received a 15-min just-in-time onsite training in full CPR cycle using BMV and were tested during five cycles of 2-person CPR following the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines with the inclusion of BMV. Tidal volumes of 300–600 ml (adults) and 20–60 ml (infants) were considered as correct ventilations. Results: From the initial 56 duos, 17 (30.4%) were excluded after applying incorrect numbers of ventilation or uninterpretable values. In adult CPR, comparing BLS-trained rescuers to untrained ones in correctly administrating ventilations using BMV after a 15-min just-in-time onsite training revealed no statistically significant difference [first years: 63.0% (n = 136 out of 216 ventilations); fourth years: 59.5% (n = 119 out of 200 ventilations); with a proportional difference of −3.5% (−12.8; 5.9)]. In infant CPR, a significant difference was observed in effective ventilations [first years: 55.5% (n = 120 out of 216 ventilations); fourth years: 72.3% (n = 133 out of 184 ventilations); with a proportional difference of 16.8 (7.25; 26.21)]. Conclusion: Two-person BMV is a complex skill to perform both in adults and children, requiring sufficient and regular training. Lay rescuers receiving a 15-min just-in-time onsite BMV training could perform decent BMV in an adult CPR setting. BMV during infant CPR requires more extensive prior training and should not be entrusted to lay rescuers, even after a 15-min just-in-time onsite training.
Tijdschrift: FRONTIERS IN DISASTER AND EMERGENCY MEDICINE
ISSN: 2813-7302
Volume: 1
Jaar van publicatie:2023
Toegankelijkheid:Open