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Gout and incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a case-control study including 152 663 individuals with gout and 709 981 matched controls

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BACKGROUND: Gout, a common crystal arthropathy, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to identify how this risk varies by individual cardiovascular disease across a broad spectrum of conditions. METHODS: In this matched case-control study, we used linked primary and secondary electronic health records from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to assemble a cohort of individuals with a first-time diagnosis of gout between Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2017, who were aged 80 years or younger at diagnosis, and free of cardiovascular diseases up to 12 months after diagnosis. The control cohort comprised up to five control individuals per patient with gout, matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, geographical region, and calendar time, randomly selected among individuals free of gout at any time before and during the study period. The cohorts were followed up until June 30, 2019. We investigated the incidence of 12 cardiovascular diseases and used Cox proportional hazards models to examine differences in people with and without gout, overall and by subgroups of sex, age, socioeconomic status, and year of study inclusion. We further adjusted models for known cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, BMI, smoking status, cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and history of hypertension). FINDINGS: We identified 152 663 individuals with gout (mean age 56·2 years [SD 13·3]; 120 324 [78·8%] men and 32 339 [21·2%] women) and 709 981 matched controls (mean age 56·5 years [13·2]; 561 002 [79·0%] men and 148 979 [21·0%] women). Of these individuals, 31 479 (20·6%) with gout and 106 520 (15·0%) without gout developed cardiovascular disease during a median follow-up of 6·5 years (IQR 3·1-10·5). Patients with gout had higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than matched controls (hazard ratio [HR] 1·58 [95% CI 1·52-1·63]). Excess risk of cardiovascular disease in gout was greater in women than men (women: HR 1·88 [1·75-2·02]; men: HR 1·49 [1·43-1·56]), and, among all age groups, was highest in younger individuals (HR in people aged <45 years: 2·22 [1·92-2·57]). Excess risk was observed across all 12 cardiovascular diseases investigated. Patients with gout had higher BMI than matched controls (mean difference 2·90 kg/m2 [95% CI 2·87-2·93]) and higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease, dyslipidaemia, history of hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Adjusting for known cardiovascular risk factors attenuated but did not eliminate the excess risk of cardiovascular disease related to gout (adjusted HR 1·31 [1·27-1·36]). INTERPRETATION: Patients with gout had an excess risk of developing a broad range of cardiovascular diseases that extend beyond atherosclerotic diseases and include heart failure, arrhythmias, valve disease, and thromboembolic diseases. Excess risk was highest in women and younger individuals. These findings suggest that strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with gout need to evolve and be implemented in clinical practice. FUNDING: Research Foundation Flanders.
ISSN: 2665-9913
Issue: 3
Volume: 6
Pagina's: e156 - e167
Jaar van publicatie:2024