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The Immunopathology of Pulmonary Rejection after Murine Lung Transplantation

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To improve outcomes following lung transplantation, it is essential to understand the immunological mechanisms that result in chronic graft failure. The associated clinical syndrome is termed chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which is known to be induced by alloimmune-dependent (i.e., rejection) and alloimmune-independent factors (e.g., infections, reflux and environmental factors). We aimed to explore the alloimmune-related mechanism, i.e., pulmonary rejection. In this study, we use a murine orthotopic left lung transplant model using isografts and allografts (C57BL/6 or BALB/c as donors to C57BL/6 recipients), with daily immunosuppression (10 mg/kg cyclosporin A and 1.6 mg/kg methylprednisolone). Serial sacrifice was performed at days 1, 7 and 35 post-transplantation (n = 6 at each time point for each group). Left transplanted lungs were harvested, a single-cell suspension was made and absolute numbers of immune cells were quantified using multicolor flow cytometry. The rejection process followed the principles of a classic immune response, including innate but mainly adaptive immune cells. At day 7 following transplantation, the numbers of interstitial macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, NK cells, NKT cells, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T and B cells were increased in allografts compared with isografts. Only dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells remained elevated at day 35 in allografts. Our study provides insights into the immunological mechanisms of true pulmonary rejection after murine lung transplantation. These results might be important in further research on diagnostic evaluation and treatment for CLAD.
Tijdschrift: Cells
ISSN: 2073-4409
Issue: 3
Volume: 13
Jaar van publicatie:2024
Toegankelijkheid:Open