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Impact of demand controlled ventilation on system performance and energy use

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Demand-controlled-ventilation (DCV) refers to a ventilation system with controlled air flow rate based on indoor air quality. DCV operates at reduced air flow rates during most of the operation time. Therefore, less energy is required for fan operation, compared to a constant-air-volume (CAV) ventilation system. Typically, DCV has a two-layer control with variable-air-volume (VAV) valves, and a fan speed control to maintain a constant-static-pressure in the duct system based on a pressure set point. However, this nominal design based fan pressure setpoint is higher than required when all VAV-valves are closed to a certain extent. Therefore, advanced pressure-reset (PR) control - resetting the pressure set point - potentially reduces fan energy use even further. This paper assesses the impact of fan control on both fan energy use and ventilation performance in DCV system of a densely occupied office. Results of a simulation model and realistic measurement setup are compared. The PR control, using air flow rate and VAV-valve position measurements as feedback, causes significantly reduction on fan energy use. These reductions compared to conventional DCV and CAV respectively, are approximately 10% and 72% in case of high occupancy and 50% and 93% in case of low occupancy. Largely, DCV with PR control is strongly considered, especially when occupancy is often expected to deviate significantly from the nominal conditions. Moreover, both simulations and measurements show that there is a clear trade-off between air flow rate deficit and fan energy use, when the fan energy use is lower, the air flow rate deficit is higher and vice versa. Furthermore, the results show that VAV-valve accuracy, characteristics and its lower operational limit hamper the ventilation system in achieving the predicted performance as in the simulation.
Tijdschrift: Energy and Buildings
ISSN: 0378-7788
Volume: 174
Pagina's: 111 - 123
Jaar van publicatie:2018
BOF-publication weight:6
CSS-citation score:1
Authors from:Government, Higher Education