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Photoelectrochemical behavior of phthalocyanine-sensitized TiO₂ in the presence of electron-shuttling mediators

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Dye-sensitized TiO(2 )has found many applications for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), solar-to-chemical energy conversion, water/air purification systems, and (electro)chemical sensors. We report an electrochemical system for testing dye-sensitized materials that can be utilized in photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensors and energy conversion. Unlike related systems, the reported system does not require a direct electron transfer from semiconductors to electrodes. Rather, it relies on electron shuttling by redox mediators. A range of model photocatalytic materials were prepared using three different TiO2 materials (P25, P90, and PC500) and three sterically hindered phthalocyanines (Pcs) with electron-rich tert-butyl substituents (t-Bu4PcZn, t-Bu4PcAlCl, and t-Bu4PcH2). The materials were compared with previously developed TiO(2 )modified by electron-deficient, also sterically hindered fluorinated phthalocyanine F64PcZn, a singlet oxygen (O-1(2)) producer, as well as its metal-free derivative, F64PcH2. The PEC activity depended on the redox mediator, as well as the type of TiO2 and Pc. By comparing the responses of one-electron shuttles, such as K4Fe(CN)(4), and O-1(2)-reactive electron shuttles, such as phenol, it is possible to reveal the action mechanism of the supported photosensitizers, while the overall activity can be assessed using hydroquinone. t-Bu4PcAlCl showed significantly lower blank responses and higher specific responses toward chlorophenols compared to t-Bu4PcZn due to the electron-withdrawing effect of the Al3+ metal center. The combination of reactivity insights and the need for only microgram amounts of sensing materials renders the reported system advantageous for practical applications.
Tijdschrift: Analytical chemistry
ISSN: 0003-2700
Volume: 94
Pagina's: 12723 - 12731
Jaar van publicatie:2022
Trefwoorden:A1 Journal article