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Prevalence, progression and implications of breast artery calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease
Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel
Breast arterial calcification (BAC) is increasingly recognized as a specific marker of medial calcification. The present retrospective observational cohort study aimed to define the prevalence, progression rate, risk factors and clinical implications of BAC in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients across stages of disease. The presence and extent of BAC were determined on mammograms in 310 females (58.7 ± 10.8 years, Caucasian) with CKD across various stages of disease [CKD G2-5D n = 132; transplant (Tx) recipients n = 178]. In a subset of 88 patients, repeat mammography was performed, allowing us to calculate the annualized BAC rate. Overall, BAC was observed in 34.7% of the patients. BAC prevalence (P = 0.02) and BAC score (P = 0.05) increased along the progression of CKD. In the overall cohort, patients with BAC were characterized by older age, more cardiovascular disease, more inflammation, higher pulse pressure and borderline higher prevalence of diabetes and were more often treated with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The BAC progression rate was significantly lower in Tx patients as compared with CKD G5D. Progressors were characterized by more inflammation, worse kidney function, higher BAC score and higher serum phosphate level (Tx only) at baseline and were more often treated with a VKA. Major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival was significantly worse in Tx patients with BAC. In conclusion, BAC is common among CKD patients, progresses at a slower pace in Tx patients as compared with CKD 5D and associates with dismal cardiovascular outcomes. BAC score, kidney function, serum phosphate at baseline and VKA usage seem to be important determinants of progression.
Tijdschrift: Clinical Kidney Journal
Pagina's: 295 - 302
Aantal pagina's: 8
Jaar van publicatie:2021