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Protein phosphatase-1: dual activity regulation by Inhibitor-2

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Inhibitor-2 (I2) ranks amongst the most ancient regulators of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). It is a small, intrinsically disordered protein that was originally discovered as a potent inhibitor of PP1. However, later investigations also characterized I2 as an activator of PP1 as well as a chaperone for PP1 folding. Numerous studies disclosed the importance of I2 for diverse cellular processes but did not describe a unifying molecular principle of PP1 regulation. We have re-analyzed the literature on I2 in the light of current insights of PP1 structure and regulation. Extensive biochemical data, largely ignored in the recent I2 literature, provide substantial indirect evidence for a role of I2 as a loader of active-site metals. In addition, I2 appears to function as a competitive inhibitor of PP1 in higher eukaryotes. The published data also demonstrate that several segments of I2 that remain unstructured in the PP1 : I2 complex are in fact essential for PP1 regulation. Together, the available data identify I2 as a dynamic activity-modulator of PP1.
Tijdschrift: Biochemical Society Transactions
ISSN: 0300-5127
Issue: 5
Volume: 48
Pagina's: 2229 - 2240
Aantal pagina's: 12
Jaar van publicatie:2020