The role of the reprogramming method and pluripotency state in gamete differentiation from patient-specific human pluripotent stem cells
Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel
The derivation of gametes from patient-specific pluripotent stem cells may provide new perspectives for genetic parenthood for patients currently facing sterility. We use current data to assess the gamete differentiation potential of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and to determine which reprogramming strategy holds the greatest promise for future clinical applications. First, we compare the two best established somatic cell reprogramming strategies: the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and somatic cell nuclear transfer followed by embryonic stem cell derivation (SCNT-ESC). Recent reports have indicated that these stem cells, though displaying a similar pluripotency potential, show important differences at the epigenomic level, which may have repercussions on their applicability. By comparing data on the genetic and epigenetic stability of these cell types during derivation and in-vitro culture, we assess the reprogramming efficiency of both technologies and possible effects on the subsequent differentiation potential of these cells. Moreover, we discuss possible implications of mitochondrial heteroplasmy. We also address the ethical aspects of both cell types, as well as the safety considerations associated with clinical applications using these cells, e.g. the known genomic instability of human PSCs during long-term culture. Secondly, we discuss the role of the stem cell pluripotency state in germ cell differentiation. In mice, success in germ cell development from pluripotent stem cells could only be achieved when starting from a naive state of pluripotency. It remains to be investigated if the naive state is also crucial for germ cell differentiation in human cells and to what extent human naive pluripotency resembles the naive state in mouse.