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TRAPPC9-CDG: A novel congenital disorder of glycosylation with dysmorphic features and intellectual disability

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

PURPOSE: TRAPPC9 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder mainly associated with intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, and obesity. Previously, TRAPPC9 deficiency has not been associated with biochemical abnormalities. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed in 3 individuals with ID and dysmorphic features. N-Glycosylation analyses were performed in the patients' blood samples to test for possible congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). TRAPPC9 gene, TRAPPC9 protein expression, and N-glycosylation markers were assessed in patient fibroblasts. Complementation with wild-type TRAPPC9 and immunofluorescence studies to assess TRAPPC9 expression and localization were performed. The metabolic consequences of TRAPPC9 deficiency were evaluated using tracer metabolomics. RESULTS: All 3 patients carried biallelic missense variants in TRAPPC9 and presented with an N-glycosylation defect in blood, consistent with CDG type I. Extensive investigations in patient fibroblasts corroborated TRAPPC9 deficiency and an N-glycosylation defect. Tracer metabolomics revealed global metabolic changes with several affected glycosylation-related metabolites. CONCLUSION: We identified 3 TRAPPC9 deficient patients presenting with ID, dysmorphic features, and abnormal glycosylation. On the basis of our findings, we propose that TRAPPC9 deficiency could lead to a CDG (TRAPPC9-CDG). The finding of abnormal glycosylation in these patients is highly relevant for diagnosis, further elucidation of the pathophysiology, and management of the disease.
Tijdschrift: Genetics in Medicine
ISSN: 1098-3600
Issue: 4
Volume: 24
Pagina's: 894 - 904
Aantal pagina's: 11
Jaar van publicatie:2022