The report focuses its analysis on areas that represent the bulk of education and training expenditure and that may indeed have a major impact on education outcomes: teachers and trainers, digital education, infrastructure and learning environment, and equity and inclusion. These areas are of strategic importance to Europe’s green and digital transformation and to building resilient economies and societies where no one is left behind.
Heterogeneous causal eﬀects with imperfect compliance: a Bayesian machine learning approach KU Leuven
This paper introduces an innovative Bayesian machine learning algorithm to draw interpretable inference on heterogeneous causal e ects in the presence of imperfect compliance (e.g., under an irregular assignment mechanism). We show, through Monte Carlo simulations, that the proposed Bayesian Causal Forest with Instrumental Variable (BCF-IV) methodology outperforms other machine learning techniques tailored for causal inference in discovering and ...
Information shocks and parental response in education. A case study of an open government initiative. KU Leuven
Local government size and service level provision. Evidence from conditional non-parametric analysis KU Leuven
Although the local provision of public goods accommodates better to the heterogeneous local preferences and mitigates the fiscal illusion problem, it comes at the cost of potential diseconomies of scale. This paper examines the relationship between municipal size and local service level provision by applying state-of-the-art non-parametric techniques to a unique panel dataset of Flemish data. We measure the service provision level by using an ...