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Frailty in Acute and Chronic Coronary Syndrome Patients Entering Cardiac Rehabilitation
Journal Contribution - Review Article
Worldwide population ageing is partly due to advanced standard of care, leading to increased incidence and prevalence of geriatric syndromes such as frailty and disability. Hence, the age at the onset of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) keeps growing as well. Moreover, ageing is a risk factor for both frailty and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Frailty and CVD in the elderly share pathophysiological mechanisms and associated conditions, such as malnutrition, sarcopenia, anemia, polypharmacy and both increased bleeding/thrombotic risk, leading to a negative impact on outcomes. In geriatric populations ACS is associated with an increased frailty degree that has a negative effect on re-hospitalization and mortality outcomes. Frail elderly patients are increasingly referred to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs after ACS; however, plans of care must be tailored on individual's clinical complexity in terms of functional capacity, nutritional status and comorbidities, cognitive status, socio-economic support. Completing rehabilitative intervention with a reduced frailty degree, disability prevention, improvement in functional state and quality of life and reduction of re-hospitalization are the goals of CR program. Tools for detecting frailty and guidelines for management of frail elderly patients post-ACS are still debated. This review focused on the need of an early identification of frail patients in elderly with ACS and at elaborating personalized plans of care and secondary prevention in CR setting.
Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine