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Hepatic and Vascular Vitamin K Status in Patients with High Cardiovascular Risk

Tijdschriftbijdrage - Tijdschriftartikel

Vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP), such as hepatic coagulation factors and vascular matrix Gla protein (MGP), play key roles in maintaining physiological functions. Vitamin K deficiency results in inactive VKDP and is strongly linked to vascular calcification (VC), one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study we investigated how two vitamin K surrogate markers, dephosphorylated-undercarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA-II), reflect vitamin K status in patients on hemodialysis or with calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) and patients with atrial fibrillation or aortic valve stenosis. Through inter- and intra-cohort comparisons, we assessed the influence of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) use, vitamin K supplementation and disease etiology on vitamin K status, as well as the correlation between both markers. Overall, VKA therapy was associated with 8.5-fold higher PIVKA-II (0.25 to 2.03 AU/mL) and 3-fold higher dp-ucMGP (843 to 2642 pM) levels. In the absence of VKA use, non-renal patients with established VC have dp-ucMGP levels similar to controls (460 vs. 380 pM), while in HD and CUA patients, levels were strongly elevated (977 pM). Vitamin K supplementation significantly reduced dp-ucMGP levels within 12 months (440 to 221 pM). Overall, PIVKA-II and dp-ucMGP showed only weak correlation (r2 ≤ 0.26) and distinct distribution pattern in renal and non-renal patients. In conclusion, VKA use exacerbated vitamin K deficiency across all etiologies, while vitamin K supplementation resulted in a vascular VKDP status better than that of the general population. Weak correlation of vitamin K biomarkers calls for thoughtful selection lead by the research question. Vitamin K status in non-renal deficient patients was not anomalous and may question the role of vitamin K deficiency in the pathogenesis of VC in these patients.
Tijdschrift: Nutrients
ISSN: 2072-6643
Issue: 10
Volume: 13
Aantal pagina's: 11
Jaar van publicatie:2021